87 By the 2nd half of the 12th century (c. Michael Sendivogius (15661636 chemistry pioneer, who discovered oxygen and developed methods of extracting metals and synthesizing acids and other substances. Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian). A b c d Krzywicki, Ludwik (2004). 83 The Golensizi (Golensizians; Golęszyce) dwelled near modern Racibórz, Cieszyn and Opawa. 61 The polonaise then re-entered the lower-class musical life, and became an integral part of Polish music. Positivism In the wake of the failed January 1863 Uprising against Russian occupation, a new period of thought and literature, Polish "Positivism", proceeded to advocate level-headedness, skepticism, the exercise of reason, and "organic work". AD 13501400 the population of Lower Silesia was around 2/3 Slavic and 1/3 German (according to estimates by Kokot, Karol Maleczynski and Tomasz Kamusella ) while Upper Silesia remained 80 ethnically Polish, with the remaining 20 split mainly between Germans and Czechs. Kazimierz Wyka coined a term "borderline novel" for documentary fiction. Some Poles remained in the previously Polish-ruled territories in the east that were annexed by the ussr, resulting in the present-day Polish-speaking minorities in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, although many Poles were expelled or emigrated from those areas to areas within Poland's new borders. Retrieved 21 November 2013. Zygmunt Krasiński, one of the Three Bards who influenced massage fuck milf hot girls tampere national consciousness during Poland's political bondage. World War II pushed many of them into exile; Benoit Mandelbrot 's family left Poland when he was still a child. Retrieved 11 February 2012. A Pictorial History of Rockets. Joseph Rotblat (19082005 physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, then shared with the Pugwash Conferences that he headed, the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize "for efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international affairs and,. "Poland's Linguistic Heritage: Oravian dialect". In the first Romantic sub-period, Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics: their work featured emotionalism and imagination, folklore, and country life, in addition to the aspiration for independence. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000 (based on the 2011 census 2 of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone. Żuławy Wiślane in North Poland used to be the homeland of Mennonites, who are considered to be either Dutch, German, or a group on their own. These writers included Kallimach ( Filippo Buonaccorsi ) and Conrad Celtis. During the following centuries cultural Germanization gradually shifted the ethnic structure of Silesia, so that by the 20th century nearly all of Lower Silesia had a German-speaking majority. An alumnus of the Warsaw School of Mathematics was Antoni Zygmund, a shaper of 20th-century mathematical analysis. Roman Catholics live all over the country, while Orthodox Christians can be found mostly in north-east, in the area of Białystok, and Protestants (mainly Lutherans) in Cieszyn Silesia and Warmia-Masuria. The main city in this region is Łódź, but it originated during the Industrial Revolution, being just a small town before that. Language Knowledge of the Polish language within Europe Main article: Polish language The Polish language ( Polish : język polski ) is a West Slavic language and the official language of Poland. Many Polish writers studied abroad and at the Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University which became a melting pot for new ideas and currents. Altogether, these institutions support some 91,000 scientists and scholars. Retrieved Maleczyński, Karol (1960).